- Semi-synthetic thebaine derivative (like oxycodone).
- Partial µ-agonist.
- Dose: 0.5 mg q6h IV/IM
- 30x morphine potency
- 200mcg-400mcg sublingual qid for analgesia
- Absorption - IV, IM, s/l, epidural (po undesirable as ++ 1st pass met)
- Distribution - 3 L/kg
- Protein binding - 96%
- Onset 30 min; Offset 4 h (longer latency & duration than morph)
- Metabolism - ß½ 5 h; hepatic dealkylation & glucuronidation. Excreted in bile & hydrolysed by GIT bacteria.
- Clearance - 14 mL/min/kg (dec 30% by GA)
- Mechanism: µ partial agonist.
- 50x greater mu rec affinity than morphine.
- May be used to treat heroin/morphine dependence.
- Greater lipid solubility than morphine.
- Ceiling effect to both analgesia & respiratory depression.
- Long duration as slow to dissociate from receptor & thus difficult to reverse.
Ketamine is a dissociative anaesthetic & potent analgesic.
- "Dissociative anaesthesia" refers to dissociation of thalamocortical and limbic systems on the EEG.
- phenylcyclidine (PCP) derivative
- pKa 7.5, weak acid (like thiopentone 60% nonionised @ pH 7.4)
- highly lipid soluble (4x thio)
- ampoule: 200 mg in 2 mL
- acidic solution of i) ketamine hydrochloride with ii) benzethonium chloride (preservative - neurotoxic !)
- 2 optical isomers - S(+)d ketamine has i) more rapid emergence due to higher metab, ii) less emergence SEs, iii) less cardiac depression, iv) 3x analgesic potency.
- Dose - 1.5-2 mg/kg IV, 10 mg/kg IM
- oral premed: 6-7 mg/kg po (15-30 min onset)
- Rx: asthma 20 mcg/kg/min
- analgesia: 0.1-0.3 mg/kg/h (no dysphoria @ 0.1, sometimes pleasant dreams @ 0.2 mg/kg/h). -[HPH 400mg in 50mL]
- TIVA: 10-50 mcg/kg/min
- Absorption - IV, IM, oral or PR
- Distribution - 8 L/kg
- Protein binding - 25% (thiopentone 75%, propofol 98%)
- Onset IV: 45-60s, peak 60s; IM: 3-5 min; Offset 15-30 min
- Metabolism - alpha∆ 11 min, ß ∆ 2.5 h. Hepatic p450 to N-demethylation to norketamine, hydroxylated to hydroxynorketamine, conjugated to water sol glucuronide derivatives.
- Norketamine has 1/5 activity of ketamine (? post-op S/Es).
- Clearance - 18 mL/kg/min (prop 25, thio 4 mL/kg/min)
- Mech - non-competitive NMDA antagonism (PCP site on NR1 subunit); anti-muscarinic; anti-monaminergic; inhibits peripheral reuptake of catecholamines; S+ enantiomer has some mu receptor activity; inhibits NO synthesis; inh non-NMDA glutamate rec.
- CNS - analgesia, amnesia, dissociative anaesthetic (thalamocortical - limbic system); inc CBF, CMRO2, ICP & IOP.
- CVS - direct cardiac depressant, but inc SNS outflow - inc CO, HR, MAP. Variable Vc & Vd.
- Resp - unaltered response to CO2; bronchodilator; inc salivary secretions; airway reflexes intact.
- GIT- inc BSL
- SEs - PONV, emergence delerium, ++ secretions, uterine hypertonicity at > 1.5 mg/kg
- Interactions - halothane prolongs duration by delaying its redistribution and metabolism.
Ketamine produces a dissociative state (unconsciousness where in cataleptic state, disconnected from surroundings associated with functional and electrophysiological dissociation between thalamo-neocortical and limbic system)
- Characteristically : eye open, slow nystagmus, varying purposeful movement and hypertonus unrelated to stimuli
- Advantages: sympathetic stimulation with preservation of BP esp in hypovolaemic state, preservation of airway reflexes, bronchodilation and intense analgesia
- Disadvantages: can theoretically precipitate myocardial ischaemia (increasing both workload and O2 requirements) increases CBF, increases PVR, emergence delirium (also anaesthetic end-point unclear and uncontrolled movements).
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