Intraoperative nitrous oxide use does not improve post-operative analgesia or reduce opioid consumption.
Note that this was firstly a retrospective trial, and secondly that it was a re-analysis of data from an earlier study, the 'Vitamins In Nitrous Oxide trial', and as such not designed with assessment of this article's end point in mind.
Nonetheless an interesting and relevant finding that calls in to question the idea that intra-operative N2O has post-operative analgesia benefit via it's known NMDA antagonism. As with many things, *further studies are required"...
Greater depth of general anaesthesia as measured by Bispectral Index Score (target BIS 30-40) does not reduce post-operative pain.
Adjuvant perineural dexamethasone (4-10 mg) prolongs brachial plexus sensory and motor blockade by between 65% and 100% longer.
Peri-operative nicotine very slightly reduces opioid consumption in non-smokers but not pain scores — and increases the incidence of post-op nausea.
Neither speed of onset or duration of Labat sciatic block is influenced by volume or LA concentration when the total dose of mepivacaine is constant.
Intra-operative use of remifentanil may have a dose-response effect on inducing hyperalgesia and consequentially increasing post-operative pain.
Intrathecal clonidine slightly improves the analgesic effects of intrathecal morphine, though increases hypotension (harm ratio 1.8).
Intraoperative dexamethasone is not associated with wound infection or delayed healing, but does increase post-operative blood glucose levels.
Intraoperative dexamethasone produces a small, though clinically insignificant post-operative analgesic benefit.