Random Stuff


Created September 16, 2015, Last updated over 1 year ago.

9 articles.


  • Why most published research findings are false.

    PLoS Med.. 2005 Aug 1;2(8):e124.

    Ioannidis demonstrated that 80% of non-randomized studies were wrong, and among randomized controlled studies 25% were incorrect. Even large, multicenter, randomized clinical trials were predictably wrong in 10% of studies.


    There is increasing concern that most current published research findings are false. The probability that a research claim is true may depend on study power and bias, the number of other studies on the same question, and, importantly, the ratio of true to no relationships among the relationships probed in each scientific field. In this framework, a research finding is less likely to be true when the studies conducted in a field are smaller; when effect sizes are smaller; when there is a greater number and lesser preselection of tested relationships; where there is greater flexibility in designs, definitions, outcomes, and analytical modes; when there is greater financial and other interest and prejudice; and when more teams are involved in a scientific field in chase of statistical significance. Simulations show that for most study designs and settings, it is more likely for a research claim to be false than true. Moreover, for many current scientific fields, claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias. In this essay, I discuss the implications of these problems for the conduct and interpretation of research. not interesting

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    Notes: 1 summary.

  • Comparative Study

    Lidocaine Preferentially Inhibits the Function of Purinergic P2X7 Receptors Expressed in Xenopus Oocytes.

    Anesth. Analg.. 2015 Mar 1;120(3):597-605.

    Lidocaine has been widely used to relieve acute pain and chronic refractory pain effectively by both systemic and local administration. Numerous studies reported that lidocaine affects several pain signaling pathways as well as voltage-gated sodium channels, suggesting the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying pain relief by lidocaine. Some extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor subunits are thought to play a role in chronic pain mechanisms, but there have been few studies on the effects of lidocaine on ATP receptors. We studied the effects of lidocaine on purinergic P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7 receptors to explore the mechanisms underlying pain-relieving effects of lidocaine. ⋯ Lidocaine selectively inhibited the function of the P2X7 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This effect may be caused by acting on sites in the ion channel pore both extracellularly and intracellularly. These results help to understand the mechanisms underlying the analgesic effects of lidocaine when it is administered locally at least. not interesting


    "Xenopus is a genus of highly aquatic frogs native to sub-Saharan Africa. Twenty species are in the Xenopus genus" – interesting animal to use really.

    pdg.50  pdg.50

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    Notes: 1 comment.

  • Review

    Perioperative acupuncture modulation: more than anaesthesia.

    Br J Anaesth. 2015 Aug 1;115(2):183-93.

    Accumulated evidences from clinical trials and updated reviews suggest that the role of acupuncture in perioperative medicine extends beyond the classical scope of anaesthesia and has been underestimated. Perioperative acupuncture reduces not only the consumption of anaesthetics and analgesics, but also anaesthesia-related complications, and protects organs in the perioperative period. These beneficial effects make acupuncture a promising approach in perioperative management, especially with respect to enhanced surgery recovery and specific surgical populations, such as elderly patients and 'triple-low' patients. Furthermore, efforts have been made to optimize the clinical application of perioperative acupuncture. not interesting

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  • Randomized Controlled Trial Comparative Study

    Controlled comparison between betamethasone gel and lidocaine jelly applied over tracheal tube to reduce postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice.

    Br J Anaesth. 2008 Feb 1;100(2):215-8.

    Postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice though minor sequelae after general tracheal anaesthesia can be distressing to the patient. ⋯ A wide spread application of betamethasone gel on the tracheal tube decreases the incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat, cough, and hoarseness of voice. not interesting

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  • Review

    The half-life of infusion fluids: An educational review.

    Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2016 Jul 1; 33 (7): 475-82.

    An understanding of the half-life (T1/2) of infused fluids can help prevent iatrogenic problems such as volume overload and postoperative interstitial oedema. Simulations show that a prolongation of the T1/2 for crystalloid fluid increases the plasma volume and promotes accumulation of fluid in the interstitial fluid space. The T1/2 for crystalloids is usually 20 to 40 min in conscious humans but might extend to 80 min or longer in the presence of preoperative stress, dehydration, blood loss of <1 l or pregnancy.The longest T1/2 measured amounts to between 3 and 8 h and occurs during surgery and general anaesthesia with mechanical ventilation. This situation lasts as long as the anaesthesia. The mechanisms for the long T1/2 are only partly understood, but involve adrenergic receptors and increased renin and aldosterone release. In contrast, the T1/2 during the postoperative period is usually short, about 15 to 20 min, at least in response to new fluid.The commonly used colloid fluids have an intravascular persistence T1/2 of 2 to 3 h, which is shortened by inflammation. The fact that the elimination T1/2 of the infused macromolecules is 2 to 6 times longer shows that they also reside outside the bloodstream. With a colloid, fluid volume is eliminated in line with its intravascular persistence, but there is insufficient data to know if this is the same in the clinical setting. not interesting

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  • Review

    A systematic review of capnography for sedation.

    Anaesthesia. 2016 Apr 1; 71 (4): 450-4.

    We included six trials with 2524 participants. Capnography reduced hypoxaemic episodes, relative risk (95% CI) 0.71 (0.56-0.91), p = 0.02, but the quality of evidence was poor due to high risks of performance bias and detection bias and substantial statistical heterogeneity. The reduction in hypoxaemic episodes was statistically homogeneous in the subgroup of three trials of 1823 adults sedated for colonoscopy, relative risk (95% CI) 0.59 (0.48-0.73), p < 0.001, although the risks of performance and detection biases were high. There was no evidence that capnography affected other outcomes, including assisted ventilation, relative risk (95% CI) 0.58 (0.26-1.27), p = 0.17. not interesting

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  • Review

    Office-based anesthesia: safety and outcomes.

    Anesth. Analg.. 2014 Aug 1;119(2):276-85.

    An exploration of the growth and evolution of Office Based Anesthesia in North America, including safety and regulatory concerns. The authors note that although recent data somewhat supports the safety of OBA, this is based upon lesser-quality retrospective studies.


    The increasing volume of office-based medical and surgical procedures has fostered the emergence of office-based anesthesia (OBA), a subspecialty within ambulatory anesthesia. The growth of OBA has been facilitated by numerous trends, including innovations in medical and surgical procedures and anesthetic drugs, as well as improved provider reimbursement and greater convenience for patients. There is a lack of randomized controlled trials to determine how office-based procedures and anesthesia affect patient morbidity and mortality. As a result, studies on this topic are retrospective in nature. Some of the early literature broaches concerns about the safety of office-based procedures and anesthesia. However, more recent data have shown that care in ambulatory settings is comparable to hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers, especially when offices are accredited and their proceduralists are board-certified. Office-based suites can continue to enhance the quality of care that they deliver to patients by engaging in proper procedure and patient selection, provider credentialing, facility accreditation, and incorporating patient safety checklists and professional society guidelines into practice. These strategies aiming at patient morbidity and mortality in the office setting will be increasingly important as more states, and possibly the federal government, exercise regulatory authority over the ambulatory setting. We explore these trends, their implications for patient safety, strategies for minimizing patient complications and mortality in OBA, and future developments that could impact the field. not interesting

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    Notes: 1 summary and 1 comment.

  • Persistence of contradicted claims in the literature.

    JAMA. 2007 Dec 5;298(21):2517-26.

    Ioannidis found that earlier disproven observational studies were still positively cited in 50% or more of peer reviewed publications, despite the existence of well-established contrary evidence.


    Some research findings based on observational epidemiology are contradicted by randomized trials, but may nevertheless still be supported in some scientific circles. ⋯ Claims from highly cited observational studies persist and continue to be supported in the medical literature despite strong contradictory evidence from randomized trials. not interesting

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    Notes: 1 summary.

  • Meta Analysis

    Nitrous Oxide-related Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Depends on Duration of Exposure.

    Anesthesiology. 2014 May 1;120(5):1137-45.

    Post-op nausea & vomiting incidence is related to duration of nitrous oxide exposure, but is clinically insignificant at under 1 hour exposure.


    Inclusion of nitrous oxide in the gas mixture has been implicated in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in numerous studies. However, these studies have not examined whether duration of exposure was a significant covariate. This distinction might affect the future place of nitrous oxide in clinical practice. ⋯ This duration-related effect may be via disturbance of methionine and folate metabolism. No clinically significant effect of nitrous oxide on the risk of PONV exists under an hour of exposure. Nitrous oxide-related PONV should not be seen as an impediment to its use in minor or ambulatory surgery. not interesting


    Related confirming the safety of nitrous oxide:

    Daniel Jolley  Daniel Jolley

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    Notes: 1 pearl and 1 comment.