- A highly lipid-soluble alkylphenol.
- 2,6 di-isopropyl phenol
- 20 mL ampoules contain:
- 200 mg 1% propofol
- 10% soybean oil (solubiliser)
- 1.2% egg lecithin (emulsifier)
- 2.25% glycerol (make isotonic)
- Sodium hydroxide (buffer)
- pKa 11, pH 7
- 90% non-ionised @ pH 7.4
- weak acid
- stable at room temp, not light sensitive
- 1 mL = 0.1 g fat = 1.1 kcal
- 2 mg/kg induction -> 2-6 mcg/mL
- 3-4 mg/kg in children
- 1 mg/kg load then: 10, 8, 6 mg/kg/h infusion (10m, 10m, cont) after 1 mg/kg loading - aims for blood conc of 3 ug/mL.
- Children: 15 mg/kg/h for 15 min, 13 mg/kg/h for 15 min, 11 mg/kg/h for 30 min then 9 mg/kg/h for 1-2 h, then 9 mg/kg/h for 2-4 h -> 3 ug/mL.
- Sedation 25-100 mcg/kg/min
- Plasma levels:
- major surg 4 mcg/mL (4-8 ug/mL)
- minor surg 3 mcg/mL
- 50% wake @ 1.07 mcg/mL (decrement lvl: 1.2 mcg/mL on TCI)
- 50% orientated @ 0.95 mcg/mL
- Psychomotor perfomance pre-op levels @ 0.3 mcg/mL
- Absorption - IV
- Distribution - Vdcc 0.5 L/kg, Vdss 2-10 L/kg
- Protein binding - 98% albumin
- Onset < 60s, peak 60-90s (slightly slower than thio: peak 30-60s); Offset 5-10 min (faster than thio).
- Metabolism - alpha1∆ 2 min, tß∆ 1h, CSHT-8h: 30 min. Conjugated to glucuronide & sulphate - water sol and renally excreted. 0.3% excreted unchanged.
- Clearance - 30 mL/kg/min.
- Children - larger central vol; longer CSHT (10m@1h & 20m@4h cf. 7m@1h & 10m@4h for adults); slower recovery; but require higher infusion rates and have higher clearance (req. same blood (=effect) conc as adults).
- NB: children have primarily pharmacokinetic differences not pharmacodynamic.
- Women - higher clearance.
- Mech - potentiates GABA inhibition.
- CNS - anaesthetic, anticonvulsant (?), antiemetic, antipruritic, amnesic.
- Not ant-analgesic like thio.
- Inc interthreshold range for temp
- CVS - 25-45% dec MAP, dec CO, dec SVR (dec SNS outflow; direct effect on veins, dec intracellular Ca mobilisation), HR unchanged (resets barorec response).
- Resp - resp depression (apnoea in 30% alone, 100% + narcotic), dec TV, inc RR, bronchodilation (slight), dep laryngeal reflexes.
- Renal - dec RBF, green urine.
- GIT - antiemetic, no hepatic effects.
- Haem - intralipid dec platelet aggregation.
- SEs - anaphylaxis rare; sig hypotension in volume depleted; hallucinations; abuse.
- pKa - 7.3 (58% nonionised @ 7.4)
- Octanol water coeff - 18
- phenylpiperidine opioid
- contain 2 ester bonds so hydrolysed by non-specific tissue esterases.
- Preparation contains 'glycine', so cannot be used epidurally.
- White powder for reconstitution with water - 1, 2, 5 mg packs
- Dose: (100x morphine potency, ~equal to fent)
- TCI: 3-8 ng/mL
- (up to 15 ng/mL for very stimulating procedures)
- Spontaneous ventilation returns @ 1-2 ng/mL
- 0.1-0.3 mcg/kg/min infusion (with propofol 80 mcg/kg/min (= 34 mL/h for 70 kg).
- 0.01-0.05 mcg/kg/min spont vent
- dilute 1 mg to 50 mL = 20 mcg/mL, or 5 mg in 50 mL = 100 mcg/mL.
- paeds: 0.03 mg/kg in 50 mL then 1 mL/h = 0.01 mcg/kg/min.
- Or paediatric whole-ampoule dilutions when advanced pumps are unavailable:
- 1mg in 16.7mLs
- or 2mg in 33.3 mLs
- or 3mg in 50mLs
- → to give a dilution of 60mcg/mL
- then for a patient of XYkg running at X.Y mLs/hr is 0.1mcg/kg/min. eg. for a 42kg patient running at 0.1mcg/kg/min will be 4.2mLs/hr which over 4 hrs uses 16 mL so a 1mg ampoule would be sufficient.
- 1 mcg/kg IV bolus to blunt pressor resp to intubation, better than fentanyl. (equiv. fent 2 mcg/kg, alfent 20 mcg/kg)
- 3-5 mcg/kg for intubation with propofol 2 mg/kg.
- 0.2-0.8 mcg/kg bolus for PCA analgesia (++SEs: sedation, desaturation)
- Absorption - IV
- Distribution - 0.5 L/kg (small)
- Protein binding - 70-90%
- Onset 1-4 min; Offset 4 min (offset due to metab not redist)
- Metabolism - ß½ ~10 min. (CSHT-8h only 4 min!) Metabolised by non-specific plasma esterases to almost-inactive metabolites (GR90291: 1/4600 activity! / t½ 2h).
- Minor pathway - N-dealkylation. NOT metabolised by plasma cholinesterase.
- Clearance - 42 mL/min/kg (30-50% CO)
- Mech - highly selective mu agonist.
- CVS - dec MAP & HR 20-30%. (? low dose glycopyrrolate to attenuate brady).
- No histamine release.
- max MAC reduction ~ 85% (0.1-0.2 mcg/kg/min = 60-70% MAC reduction).
- To avoid awareness keep propofol @ at least 80 mcg/kg/min or volatile 0.3 MAC.
- Beware rapid Opioid Induced Hyperalgesia.
- Resp - ⇣ RR & MV; apnoea. Spontaneous respiration occurs at blood concentrations of 4 to 5 nanogram/mL in the absence of other anaesthetic agents; for example, after discontinuation of a 0.25 microgram/kg/minute infusion of remifentanil, these blood concentrations would be reached in two to four minutes.
- GIT - dec CTZ stimulation as rapidly metabolised; no ion trapping.
- Muscle - muscle rigidity similar to alfentanil, though more than fentanyl.
- May cause chest wall rigidity (inability to ventilate) after single doses of > 1 microgram/kg administered over 30 to 60 seconds or infusion rates > 0.1 microgram/kg/minute.
- Administration of doses < 1 microgram/kg may cause chest wall rigidity when given concurrently with a continuous infusion of remifentanil.
- Foetal - little effect as rapidly metabolised by foetus.
- Semi-synthetic thebaine derivative (like oxycodone).
- Partial µ-agonist.
- Dose: 0.5 mg q6h IV/IM
- 30x morphine potency
- 200mcg-400mcg sublingual qid for analgesia
- Absorption - IV, IM, s/l, epidural (po undesirable as ++ 1st pass met)
- Distribution - 3 L/kg
- Protein binding - 96%
- Onset 30 min; Offset 4 h (longer latency & duration than morph)
- Metabolism - ß½ 5 h; hepatic dealkylation & glucuronidation. Excreted in bile & hydrolysed by GIT bacteria.
- Clearance - 14 mL/min/kg (dec 30% by GA)
- Mechanism: µ partial agonist.
- 50x greater mu rec affinity than morphine.
- May be used to treat heroin/morphine dependence.
- Greater lipid solubility than morphine.
- Ceiling effect to both analgesia & respiratory depression.
- Long duration as slow to dissociate from receptor & thus difficult to reverse.
- "Dissociative anaesthesia" refers to dissociation of thalamocortical and limbic systems on the EEG.
- phenylcyclidine (PCP) derivative
- pKa 7.5, weak acid (like thiopentone 60% nonionised @ pH 7.4)
- highly lipid soluble (4x thio)
- ampoule: 200 mg in 2 mL
- acidic solution of i) ketamine hydrochloride with ii) benzethonium chloride (preservative - neurotoxic !)
- 2 optical isomers - S(+)d ketamine has i) more rapid emergence due to higher metab, ii) less emergence SEs, iii) less cardiac depression, iv) 3x analgesic potency.
- Dose - 1.5-2 mg/kg IV, 10 mg/kg IM
- oral premed: 6-7 mg/kg po (15-30 min onset)
- Rx: asthma 20 mcg/kg/min
- analgesia: 0.1-0.3 mg/kg/h (no dysphoria @ 0.1, sometimes pleasant dreams @ 0.2 mg/kg/h). -[HPH 400mg in 50mL]
- TIVA: 10-50 mcg/kg/min
- Absorption - IV, IM, oral or PR
- Distribution - 8 L/kg
- Protein binding - 25% (thiopentone 75%, propofol 98%)
- Onset IV: 45-60s, peak 60s; IM: 3-5 min; Offset 15-30 min
- Metabolism - alpha∆ 11 min, ß ∆ 2.5 h. Hepatic p450 to N-demethylation to norketamine, hydroxylated to hydroxynorketamine, conjugated to water sol glucuronide derivatives.
- Norketamine has 1/5 activity of ketamine (? post-op S/Es).
- Clearance - 18 mL/kg/min (prop 25, thio 4 mL/kg/min)
- Mech - non-competitive NMDA antagonism (PCP site on NR1 subunit); anti-muscarinic; anti-monaminergic; inhibits peripheral reuptake of catecholamines; S+ enantiomer has some mu receptor activity; inhibits NO synthesis; inh non-NMDA glutamate rec.
- CNS - analgesia, amnesia, dissociative anaesthetic (thalamocortical - limbic system); inc CBF, CMRO2, ICP & IOP.
- CVS - direct cardiac depressant, but inc SNS outflow - inc CO, HR, MAP. Variable Vc & Vd.
- Resp - unaltered response to CO2; bronchodilator; inc salivary secretions; airway reflexes intact.
- GIT- inc BSL
- SEs - PONV, emergence delerium, ++ secretions, uterine hypertonicity at > 1.5 mg/kg
- Interactions - halothane prolongs duration by delaying its redistribution and metabolism.
- Characteristically : eye open, slow nystagmus, varying purposeful movement and hypertonus unrelated to stimuli
- Advantages: sympathetic stimulation with preservation of BP esp in hypovolaemic state, preservation of airway reflexes, bronchodilation and intense analgesia
- Disadvantages: can theoretically precipitate myocardial ischaemia (increasing both workload and O2 requirements) increases CBF, increases PVR, emergence delirium (also anaesthetic end-point unclear and uncontrolled movements).
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