Despite increasing the likelihood of a Cormack-Lehane grade 1 view, pooled results from the studies showed no difference between the Pentax Airway Scope and standard Macintosh laryngoscope for:
- Rate of intubation on first attempt.
- Time for intubation.
- Incidence of oral or pharyngeal injury.
The Pentax Airway Scope improves laryngeal view compared with the standard Macintosh laryngoscope but does not facilitate intubation.
Real-time ultrasound guidance of central line insertion dramatically reduces the incidence of procedural failure (RR 0.18), arterial puncture (RR 0.25), haematoma (RR 0.30), pneumothorax (RR 0.21), and haemothorax (RR 0.10). Studies specifically investigating children and infants were however too small to make significant conclusions.
Real-time ultrasound guidance for central line insertion significantly reduces complications and adverse events.
Dexmedetomidine 150 mcg significantly extends the duration of ropivacaine interscalene block by almost 30% without significant adverse effect.
A single-penetration dual-injection block of the sciatic and saphenous nerves was faster to perform but equally effective as traditional techniques.
Midazolam 0.03 mg/kg IV given to children pre-emergence reduces delirium without a clinically significant delay in emergence.
Although this Cochrane review supports the belief that epidural and paravertebral blocks may reduce persistent-surgical pain after thoracotomy or breast cancer surgery respectively, the authors highlight the low total number of subjects (only 339 patients) in the five trials analysed. This is enough evidence to consider the PSP-benefits of regional anesthesia, but far from enough to be conclusive or change practice.
Epidural anesthesia may reduce post-thoracotomy chronic pain (OR 0.33) and paravertebral block reduce that following breast ca surgery (OR 0.37).
Maternal asthma control may be improved by multidisciplinary care, education and asthma monitoring.